Shadow of a Cloud

The life of Black Hawk, Sauk chief

See Illinois (unpublished)

2004

In 1927, a Rockford newspaper sponsored a contest to select a name for that city’s opulent new movie palace; “Black Hawk” was among the runners-up. When arts and downtown improvement organizations in Rock Island decided to decorate the sides of buildings left exposed by adjacent demolitions, they commissioned a forty-foot trompe l'oeil representation of Black Hawk.

 

Black Hawk has even been adopted as a fellow patriot by modern Sinnissippians. “The chief was a smart man,” insisted poet Dave Etter, in “Midwinter Thoughts.” “He was one of the first to recognize the fact that Illinois is a better place to live than Iowa.”

This profile is taken from the manuscript for my never-published guide to Illinois history and culture. (See under "See Illinois" in Publications for more about that project.) For more about the native people of northern Illinois, see here and  here.

For an excellent summary of the editorial history of the Black Hawk autobiography mentioned below, see the introduction and footnotes by Donald Jackson in the 1954 University of Illinois Press reprint of the 1833 autobiography.

 

Black Hawk lords over northern Illinois today the way he never did in life. The majority of the Sauk and Fox, indeed the Winnebago and Pottawatomi too, accepted the terms of the treaties signed by their chiefs that Black Hawk disdained. Rival leaders such as Keokuk and Shabbona showed wisdom in refusing to follow him in war. Yet—in one of those ironies that make history worth reading—it is Black Hawk, whose very name sent settlers fleeing in fear to the blockhouses, who among Sinnissippi’s Indian leaders is hailed today as a hero by non-Indians.

 

The facts of Black Hawk’s life are not much in dispute. He was born at the Indian village known as Saukenuk in today's Rock Island in 1767. He found a constituency and a calling in war, which he pursued at every opportunity that life on an unsettled frontier gave him. Upon his capture in 1832 he was paraded in eastern cities. A placid retirement ended in Iowa in 1838, when he died at the age of 71.

 

A warrior must have an enemy, and Black Hawk’s was Americans. He allied himself with the British from colonial days but he was less pro-British than anti-American. His home village on the Rock River was the site of the westernmost incident of the Revolutionary War. In 1780, when Black Hawk was a boy, an American force joined with French and Spanish allies to destroy the village in retaliation for Indian participation in a British attempt to capture Cahokia and St. Louis. When a man, Black Hawk returned the gesture, fighting against the Americans alongside the British under Tecumseh in the War of 1812.

Black Hawk was a curiosity as much as a celebrity; officially a prisoner of war while being paraded in the East after his surrender, he was treated as if a visiting foreign dignitary, which of course he was. He had his portrait painted, his skull measured, and a bust modeled, an anthropological method not usually applied to, say, the French ambassador or a German prince on tour. Black Hawk’s grave was plundered not long thereafter by a local doctor who cleaned the bones and wired them for display to gawkers with money to waste; the territorial governor obtained their return, but instead of being respectfully re-buried the remains were shipped to an Iowa museum, where they were destroyed in a fire in 1855. Even Black Hawk’s detractors agree that it was an end undeserved by a warrior, or even for that matter, by a villain.

In 1833, at Rock Island, Black Hawk dictated an account of this life to Frenchman  Antoine LeClaire. LeClaire was a competent interpreter but English was not his first language, so J. P. Patterson, who published the Galenian newspaper in Galena during the war, put LeClaire’s manuscript into more sellable form and published it later that year. The accuracy of the book, Life of Ma-Ka-Tia-Me-She-Kia-Kiak or Black Hawk, thus depends on LeClaire’s grasp of Sauk (considered good), his knowledge of English (not so good) and Patterson’s faithfulness to LeClaire’s text. Of the last we have little reason to be confident; Patterson amended subsequent editions so much that scholars consider them untrustworthy.

As a factual account, Black Hawk’s autobiography (in its the first edition anyway) is considered genuine, even if it must be considered suspect as a literal record of Black Hawk’s speech. Yet it is largely on account of that work that Black Hawk’s name was included on the frieze atop the Illinois State Library in Springfield with the names of 35 of Illinois’s literary immortals. It is reasonable to wonder whether Black Hawk was included on grounds of political correctness rather than literary merit; to a librarian, perhaps, the only good Indian is a read Indian.

It is not only by his words that we remember Black Hawk. He was among the most painted of Native American leaders. Probably the most published of the several portraits done of him is the later of two done by Charles Bird King in 1837. In 1982 Hodges Soileau did a portrait that appeared on a 1984 commemorative cover issued by the U.S. Postal Service at Rock Island. It contrasts interestingly with the lithograph done more than a century earlier, in 1853, by John Cameron after a portrait by James Otto Lewis. The newer version is Roman in mien, a more robust and admirable Indian in every way, an Indian worthy of respect from a people that likes its heroes handsome.

Black Hawk has stayed put but the world has moved around him. When memories of the depredations of his braves were alive, he was denounced as a terrorist. By the latter 1800s, the process of converting the bloodthirsty renegade into the George Washington of his people was well underway. Whites by then could regard Black Hawk with the magnanimity that victors often reserve for the safely vanquished, and commentators tended to describe Black Hawk’s resistance as being in the tradition of great Indian leaders such as King Philip, Pontiac, and Tecumseh. Victorians sentimentalized the noble red man in their own way, transforming the saga of cultural conflict in North America into a tragedy of innocence betrayed. Speeches made at the dedication in 1911 of the Black Hawk monument in Lowden Memorial State Park made wistful references to Black Hawk’s ”simple, kindly, faithful, virile race.” As anthropology this is almost comic—the Sauk were unforgiving, even (by Western standards) barbaric in war.

Each revision of the Black Hawk legend spawned its own revision. In 1903 Frank E. Stevens wrote a book to set the record straight—again. In place of the noble savage, cruelly wronged, Stevens gave the world a man who was vain, jealous, and untrustworthy, and who had no ambition for his people, only himself. By the end of the 20th century, public opinion had swung again. Today Black Hawk is romanticized as a freedom fighter, his age’s Che Guevara. The baby-boom generation in particular have been drawn to him, seeing in him a fellow anti-establishment rebel who identified with oppressed people of color. The blood-thirsty malcontents of the 1830s are now (to quote a State of Illinois Web site) “brave warriors.”

Probably all those things are true about him. So who is the “real” Black Hawk? Even Roger L. Nichols, a sympathetic editor whose version of the autobiography appeared in 1999, concludes that Black Hawk as was proud, stubborn, could not take advice, was uncooperative and found it difficult to admit mistakes. Perhaps most dangerous in a military leader, Black Hawk believed in fairy tales—about fate's plans for him, about promised alliances with other clans, about the loyalty of his old allies. This tendency toward wishful thinking undid him, as it was to undo so many military men. In an era in which the fur trade, European diseases, and the resulting increased inter-tribal warfare had unalterably changed the Sauk culture and economy, his “warrior path” proved to be a dead-end.

There is of course no one truth about the Black Hawk war any more than there is one truth about Black hawk. Certainly the war is understood in very different terms today than it was a century ago. Since then, the Native American has been transformed in the popular mind from savage to victim. Skepticism of government action (learned from Vietnam), the civil rights revolution, the profound ambivalence felt among Illinois’s postwar middle class about their commercial, rootless culture that is the antithesis of Native American ways—these factors shade our opinions as decisively as fear shaded those of the isolated settler in the 1830s. The human taste for simple explanations hasn’t changed, however, and Black Hawk is no more perfectly a hero than he was a savage. ●

SITES

OF

INTEREST

John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago

 

The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois

 

Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives

 

Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum

 

The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.

Chicagology

I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)

BOOKS

 OF INTEREST

Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 

Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.

Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 

Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

Contact James Krohe Jr. at CornLatitudes@outlook.com

All material copyright © by James Krohe Jr. unless otherwise indicated