Some Books About Illinois Towns

Good biographies of Illinois towns abound

See Illinois (unpublished)  2020

Most towns of any size have a history (usually commissioned in observation of a centennial or other anniversary) but too many of these were written by boosters, and some can hardly be said to have been written at all. A typical work of the former type is The History of Peoria, Illinois (N. C. Nason, 1870) by Charles Ballance, the untutored land dealer and mayor of Peoria, which is essential (for want of anything better) but insufficient. Happily, quite a few town histories rise above that standard.

 

Northern Illinois towns

 

Historian and folklorist Roald Tweet, Professor Emeritus of English at Augustana College, introduces his favorite place to strangers in The Quad Cities: An American Mosaic (The Brandt Company, 1996). The story of the Quad Cities is inseparable from that of the Mississippi. The steamboats of the Upper Mississippi have been amply chronicled. Among the few specifically local works is Tweet’s A History of the Rock Island District Corps of Engineers, 1866–1893, published by the Corps in 1975.

The most useful history of Rockford is Jon W. Lundin’s Rockford: An Illustrated History (Windsor Publications, Inc., 1989, second edition American Historical Press, 1996). One critic praised its ”intelligent interpretative framework, which makes it unique among the several histories of the city.” That makes it unusual among histories of most Illinois cities, period.

The many tourists who visit Galena sustain a market for photo books, reminiscences, and reprints of period curiosities. Among the more interesting of many titles are The Building of Galena: An Architectural Legacy by Carl H. Johnson, Jr. (Worzalla, 1977). Galena, Illinois, a reprint of the American Guide Series entry compiled and written by the Federal Writers Project in 1937, was written largely by Nelson Algren, who is as unlikely a guide to Galena as one might imagine.

 

Central Illinois towns

 

As social history, Paul Angle’s Here I Have Lived: A History of Lincoln's Springfield, 1821–1865 and Benjamin Thomas’ Lincoln’s New Salem, mentioned above, have been rendered incomplete by subsequent research, but it remains valuable to anyone wanting to know something of the social and political context of Lincoln’s life.

 

Excerpts from journalism and memoirs by various authors make up A Springfield Reader: Historical Views of the Illinois Capital, 1818–1976, edited by James Krohe Jr. (Sangamon County Historical Society, 1976.) See this page for more about it. 

 

Another fine town biography is The Social Order of a Frontier Community: Jacksonville, Illinois 1825–70 by Don Harrison Doyle (University of Illinois Press, 1978), which is an academic but still readable history of that interesting city. One review spoke for many others when he called the book “a welcome addition to the slowly growing number of scholarly histories of smaller American cities.”

They Broke the Prairie by Earnest Elmo Calkins earned a placed among the best books about Illinois cities. This history of the Galesburg and of Knox College was first published in 1937, on the occasion of Knox's and Galesburg's sesquicentennial, and was reprinted in 1971. In 1989 the University of Illinois Press brought out a new edition with an introduction by Rodney O. Davis. While it is dated and marred by the prejudices of its era, it remains worth reading. Galesburg also features in Kay J. Carr’s study of the development of community social and political structures, the much-praised Belleville, Ottawa, and Galesburg: Community and Democracy on the Illinois Frontier (Southern Illinois University Press, 1996).

Juliet E.  K. Walker investigates the rise and fall of New Philadelphia in Pike County and the career of its remarkable promoter in Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier (University of Kentucky Press, 1983).

 

Many a visitor finds that the University of Illinois’s Urbana-Champaign campus is just about the prettiest town in mid-Illinois. How it got that way is chronicled in History of the Growth and Development of the Campus Plan of the University of Illinois by Leon D. Tilton and Thomas E. O'Donnell (University of Illinois Press, 1930). A new book is needed to take into account the subsequent expansion of the campus; sadly, that book is not

An Illini Place: Building the University of Illinois Campus by Lex Tate and John Franch (University of Illinois Press, 2017).  I reviewed it here

Another fine town biography is The Social Order Of a Frontier Community: Jacksonville, Illinois 1825–70 by Don Harrison Doyle (University of Illinois Press, 1978), which is an academic but still readable history of that interesting city. Historian John Y. Simon called it “a model for investigations of other towns and cities.“ 

Southern Illinois towns

 

Lincoln's Vandalia, a Pioneer Portrait by William E. Baringer (Rutgers University Press, 1949) recounts Lincoln’s early legislative career when Vandalia was the state capital. A more comprehensive treatment of early Vandalia is Paul E. Stroble, Jr.’s High on the Okaw's Western Bank: Vandalia, Illinois 1819–1839 (University of Illinois Press, 1992).

The completion of the Illinois Central Railroad and the coming of the Civil War gave added importance to Cairo, whose standard history is John M. Lansden’s 1910 work, A History of the City of Cairo, Illinois with a foreword by Clyde C. Walton (reprinted by the Southern Illinois University Press, 1976).

For a small town, Cairo has attracted the attention of a surprising number of big writers. Charles Dickens, in Martin Chuzzlewit, has his hero relive one of Dickens’ own real-life adventures when he is fleeced by an unscrupulous land speculator and ends up the owners of a worthless piece of Illinois swamp. In North America (Volume 2) Anthony Trollope devoted to the subject of the mud of Cairo the art, the wit that ordinary novelists devote to their heroes; whatever his other complaints, he cannot have said that Cairo did not inspire him. Cairo's shortcomings also figure centrally in Far From Home: Life and Loss in Two American Towns by Ron Powers (Random House, 1991).

H. Allen Smith, who sold some four million books in his career, including the World War II bestseller, Low Man on a Totem Pole, was a McLeansboro boy. Born in 1907, Smith returned to his birthplace in 1946 to walk down memory lane; the results are described amusingly in Lo, the Former Egyptian! (After surveying the community, he asked what caused the town’s founder to pick such an isolated spot for a town. “Were they running from somebody?”)

The rich ethnic past of Metro East has been chronicled in many scholarly articles—two of many are Stanley B. Kimball’s East Europeans in Southwestern Illinois: The Ethnic Experience in Historical Perspective (Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, 1981) and “The Bulgarian Colony of Southwestern Illinois, 1900–1920” by David E. Cassens (Illinois Historical Journal, Vol. 84, 1991)—and too few books. Among the latter is Journey to New Switzerland (Southern Illinois University Press, 1987) by Joseph Suppiger and others, which tells the history of the Highland Settlement in Madison County, and America's First Black Town: Brooklyn Illinois, 1830–1915 by Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua (University of Illinois Press, 2000).

Small towns don’t get much more interesting in Illinois than Elsah; its story is told briefly in Elsah: A Historic Guidebook (Historic Elsah Foundation,1967; revised 1986) by Charles B. Hosmer, Jr. and Paul O. Williams.

Cities in Illinois don’t get more troubled than East St. Louis. What is described as the first comprehensive history of the city is Made in USA: East St. Louis by Andrew J. Theising, a professor of political science at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville   (Virginia Publishing, 2003). Two narrow studies of interest are The Politics of Urban Planning: The East St. Louis Experience by Dennis R. Judd and Robert E. Mendelson (University of Illinois Press, 1973) and Savage Inequalities, which devotes a chapter to the city’s lamentable public schools.

A popular treatment of Alton’s busy past is given in It Happened at the River Bend  by John J. Dunphy (Second Reading Publications, 2007). An academic examination of the development of community social and political structures is Kay J. Carr’s Belleville, Ottawa, and Galesburg: Community and Democracy on the Illinois Frontier (Southern Illinois University Press, 1996)

Downstate cities are examined from a sociological perspective in Daniel J. Elazar’s important investigation into political cultures of Illinois, Cities of the Prairie: The Metropolitan Frontier and American Politics (Basic Books, 1970) which casts a light on Champaign-Urbana, Peoria, Springfield, and Decatur. (The work was updated in The Closing of the Metropolitan Frontier: Cities of the Prairie Revisited by Rozann Rothman, Stephen L. Schecter, et al, with an introduction by Elazar (University of Nebraska Press, 1986).

 

That toddlin' town

 

Understand that this is merely a sampling of the dozens—hundreds?—of worthy books about Chicago in all its aspects. Any book set in Chicago will tells readers something about the city, of course, but here we dealing with books in which the town is the main character. Books mainly about Chicago politics, buildings, events, institutions, transportation systems, urban issues, and culture are noted in other parts of Illinois books & writers.

 

If one can read only one book, try  City of the Century: The Epic of Chicago and the Making of America (Simon & Schuster, 1996) by Donald L. Miller. Well-written and astute, the book is the new standard history of Chicago.

 

Substantial if a less lively read is Chicago: A Biography by Dominic A. Pacyga (University of Chicago Press, 2009). Pacyga is a professor emeritus of history at Chicago’s Columbia College and the author of several important works of local history, including  Polish Immigrants and Industrial Chicago: Workers on the South Side, 1880–1922; Chicago: A Biography; and Slaughterhouse: Chicago's Union Stock Yard and the World It Made, all from the University of Chicago Press. Most recent, but one hopes not the last, of these newer very good Chicago histories is The Third Coast by Stuart Dyja (Penguin Press, 2013).

 

From a crowded shelf of dusty volumes I reach first for the works of Bessie Louise Pierce, regarded by many as the first serious historian of Chicago. The three volumes in her A History of Chicago was brought out by the University of Chicago Press in 1937, 1940, and 1957 and remains in print. She also compiled a collection of observations and opinions of  visitors to the city titled As Others See Chicago, which was published in 1933. And while it is now hard to find, journalist Lloyd Lewis’s Chicago: The History of Its Reputation (Harcourt, Brace, 1929) is worth the looking; few books about the city are more fun to read.

 

Since the 1990s, readers curious about Chicago have been spoiled for choice. First on the shelves was Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West by William Cronon (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991) is as much a history of agriculture in Illinois as a history of Chicago, but that is not a complaint, as the city and its Downstate hinterland grew rich together.  Then there is the deservedly popular Devil in the White City by Erik Larson (Crown, 2002), which brings the 1890s city alive as it weaves the stories of the planning and building of the 1893 World's Fair and the hunt for serial killer H. H. Holmes.

 

The shelves are crammed with books by newspaper reporters recounting foible and folly and all extremely colorful, although they would be better is addressed why Chicago these days is so dull in comparison. The best is still Ben Hecht's 1922 memoir, 1001 Afternoons in Chicago (republished by University of Chicago Press, 2009).

 

An interesting entry is Chicago by the Book: 101 Publications That Shaped the City and Its Image, with an Introduction by Neil Harris (University of Chicago Press, 2018). Chicago by the Book profiles 101 landmark publications (books, catalogs, songs, city directories, government reports, maps, speeches, poems, and more) about Chicago from the past 170 years that have helped define the city and its image. Each title is the focus of an illustrated essay by a leading Chicago scholar, writer, or bibliophile. ●

SITES

OF

INTEREST

John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago

 

The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois

 

Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives

 

Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum

 

The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.

Chicagology

I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)

BOOKS

 OF INTEREST

Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 

Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.

Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 

Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

Contact James Krohe Jr. at CornLatitudes@outlook.com

All material copyright © by James Krohe Jr. unless otherwise indicated