Tolling for the Chapel

Progress rolls over the good sisters of Springfield

Illinois Times

June 9, 1994

Writing pleas to save and reuse old buildings in Springfield was like putting urgent messages in bottles and tossing them into the surf, and by mid-1994 I had pretty much run out of bottles. A few weeks after this piece appeared I was on my way to the West Coast.

 

That was a quarter-century ago. Since then a gratifying number of downtown Springfield’s period commercial buildings have been reborn as office, restaurant, or residential spaces. This happy trend has been driven by younger businesspeople, with much help from federal tax credits; nothing in Springfield happens unless the business community wants it, and the city council was as eager to approve such projects as they had been eager to disapprove them in the past. Art and craftsmanship and history still mean little when it comes to preservation policy, only profit potential.

 

I confess to having a sentimental fondness for the place. As a youth I occasionally visited the old chapel at the Sacred Heart Convent on Springfield's once-west side. Not that I ever attended services, mind you. I was to be found high on the outside of the ninety-one-year-old building, on the fire escape with my high-school friends. Our ambition was neither vandalism nor adventure but contemplation. Our conversations often took a metaphysical turn after midnight in those days, and staring at the moon with a snootful was as close to prayer as I got.

 

Thus it is that I feel a personal sting at the news that the teaching sisters of the Dominican order want to raze the chapel to expand the Sacred Heart-Griffin High School. School enrollment is booming, at least at the moment. The news (for example) that Springfield High School was considering installing metal detectors—not in the science labs but in the hallways—ignited a fervor for religious education among the town's spiritually-minded middle class parents.

 

The last-minute attempt to forestall the destruction of the chapel by giving it official status as a city landmark did not save the building, but it did raise some interesting questions. Here's one: Why should those of us not connected to the convent or the school be troubled that this block, which used to one of the loveliest on the west side, will soon look like just another office park? The Sacred Heart chapel is neither the grandest or the most architecturally distinguished of the city's churches. Besides, Springfield already has a sizable collection of underused church buildings as a result of its semi-official apartheid policies and would hardly seem to the poorer for losing this one.

 

The preservationists' generic reply is familiar enough that I need only summarize it here. Our "heirloom buildings," whatever their intrinsic architectural or historic status, are crucial to our sense of local identity and to cultural continuity. Even mediocre structures of the nineteenth century possess materials and workmanship that can't be duplicated today. That makes them rare, even if they aren't beautiful, and a civilized society values both beauty and rarity.

 

But what, you say, have the values of a civilized society to do with Springfield? Not much, in the opinion of the practical men at the State Journal-Register. That paper editorialized against the landmarking of the chapel both on its opinion columns and in an extended apology for the demolition published as a feature article in its editions of May 28. The paper mounted the well-worn soapbox on behalf of Private Property Rights, objecting that a public body such as the Springfield City Council has not the right to dictate to a private body, especially a religious one, what to do with its places of worship.

 

The complaint is ingenuous. Even churches remain subject to civil law in this republic. Civil law dictates how private parties may treat their property in a hundred ways, from construction techniques to zoning, on behalf of the larger public good. Every property owner cedes certain property rights (for example, the right to leave their front lawns unmowed) on the principle, long established in American law, that private property not only exists in, but largely constitutes the public realm.

 

A local landmark in particular becomes public of a sort by virtue of its appropriation by community memory. The fact that the public has subsidized the operations of this particular landmark for decades also gives the public standing in the matter of its demolition; I will cede the sisters the absolute right to dispose of their dispose of their property if they cede to me and my fellow taxpayers their claim to exemption from public taxes on their property and income.

 

Another, somewhat more telling point made by the SJ-R was that historic preservation has not been a success in Springfield. No disputing that conclusion. A number of aldermen eager to defend the sisters against the depredations of the Historic Sites Commission concluded that the best way to guarantee the protection of the chapel was to demolish the city's preservation process. They called a special meeting to approve the demolition request before it had even been submitted to the council; when that was nixed by a no doubt amused city attorney, the redoubtable [alderman] Mr. Redpath proposed to immediately undo the existing city law requiring that a council contemplating demolition await a recommendation by the HSC set up for that purpose. Ward 7 representative Gwenn Klingler set a new standard for aldermanic discourse when she explained her vote to grease the demolition was meant to send a strong message to the Historic Sites Commission for having waited too long to begin the landmarking process—that message being that the way to improve the landmarking process was to speed up the demolition of historic buildings.

 

The sisters have stressed their helplessness in the matter. Over the years the chapel building served the order and later the high school variously as classrooms, gym, infirmary, bandroom, and peer counseling center. They regret their decision to raze the old building, of course, but the structure is not usable in the state it is in. No doubt that is true, although it was the sisters who let it get into that state.

 

Local preservation activists, answering criticism that they waited too long to landmark the building, have explained that they never dreamed that the nuns would tear down their old chapel. History suggests that they shouldn't have been surprised. The convent was built on the estate of Jesse Dubois, a contemporary of Lincoln whose fine mansion graced the south part of the grounds until the sisters reduced it to rubble in 1969.

 

The chapel proper is still used for worship only by the high school, the rest of the community using the convent chapel built in 1968. The planned new wing of the high school reportedly will include a new one-and-a-half-story chapel with movable seating—the very latest in liturgical convenience. The principal of the high school told the SJ-R that while the sisters value historic preservation and history, the education of the young is a greater value. I for one would not want to send a kid to a school where history was seen as a separate value from education; nor, were I a Catholic, would I want my church to be known more for its fine new schools than for its fine old churches.

 

The chapel is hardly the first notable old Springfield building to die in a bad cause. The town's biggest and most glorious movie house is gone. Its graceful Carnegie Library—gone. Mansions of prominent citizens such as Bunn and Cullom—gone. Nineteenth-century commercial buildings by the dozen—all gone. Each added grace, variety, and proportion to the cityscape; each was a cue to consciousness. None has been replaced with anything that approaches it in quality.

 

What is it about older buildings that so much of official Springfield seems to hate? In the case of the demolition of the Sacred Heart, some believe that this reluctance owes to the memory of the council’s mostly Catholic members who had been taught that it was wrong to disagree with a nun, especially a nun who has a ruler in her hand. Others—architects, engineers, and other feeders who perform the same function in the building ecology that fungus performs in a forest when an old trees falls down— smell a commission.

 

Neither reason completely explains the resentment expressed toward preservation as an ethic or toward preservationists as a group. Is it that so many of city officials are newly arrived to the political if not the middle class? Do their memories of exclusion make them hate the city's past and the buildings—most of them monuments to past elites—that symbolize it? Does their anti-preservationist impulse reflect the parvenu's infatuation with the new and the modem? Are they, like so many Americans, oblivious to or even contemptuous of the idea of history in a country where every generation re-invents itself? Or is the nineteenth century as ugly, alien, and jarring to the average Springfieldian as the late twentieth is to preservationists? The franchised America of the eternal present would seem to be where most Springfieldians feel at home.

 

The political contest between the forces of preservation and those of vandalism is usually characterized as a struggle between Progress and the Sticks-in-the-mud, but in fact it is the preservationists who are forward-looking. It is the sophisticated, the educated, the traveled elements in our nation's cities that value the architectural heritage of the past. Only in backwaters like Springfield does the discredited nineteenth-century notion that change is progress still hold sway. Thus the preservationists seek to advance the future by protecting the past, while the city council and the good sisters of Sacred Heart, by giving heedless priority to the present, push Springfield backward into tomorrow.  ●

SITES

OF

INTEREST

John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago

 

The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois

 

Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives

 

Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum

 

The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.

Chicagology

I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)

BOOKS

 OF INTEREST

Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 

Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.

Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 

Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

Contact James Krohe Jr. at CornLatitudes@outlook.com

All material copyright © by James Krohe Jr. unless otherwise indicated