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A Problem of Scale

The interests of  City and city often are at odds

Illinois Times

February 25, 1977

An early piece in which I first articulated an insight, not original to me, that the corporate City of Springfield—and every other municipality in Illinois—which is presumed to function as the arbiter among vested private interests, is itself a vested interest. Needing to balance its books while providing services to voters who are loath to pay for them by taxing their property, city leaders are captive to development that the city can tax.


"It's a problem of scale. You've got the interests of the city as a whole against the interests of a few people. When that happens, politicians tend to vote in favor of the aggregate, especially when they're elected on an at-large basis."


The man doing the talking was Randy Kucera, associate professor of public administration at Sangamon State University. Kucera is a very brainy fellow, an intellectual by training and inclination, the kind of person who can describe a cigarette habit as a "dependable variable" and get away with it. He specializes in figuring out how organizations work.


The organization being discussed in this case was the Springfield city council. I had described to Kucera a zoning case that'd come up before the city council a few weeks earlier. Two Springfield land developers, Mark Nathanson and Charles Robbins, had petitioned the council to rezone 4.6 acres of land on Sangamon Avenue near the Northgate subdivision to a "highway business service district." They wanted the B-l zoning in order to build a 28,500-square-foot Eagle supermarket, store number 772 in that 28-state chain.


I thought it was an important story. The subject of the hearing was zoning, but the issue was land— who owns it, who decides how it's used, who profits by its use. The developers, speaking through their attorney, Robert Cohen, talked about jobs, about increased tax revenues for the city, about convenience to shoppers. Opponents of the project—some of the 127 people who'd signed petitions against it—worried about traffic, worried about the safety of their children, ultimately about commercialization that might change their neighborhood to the kind of place some of them had moved to Northgate to escape.


At first the episode looked like a confrontation right out of a "B" Western—cattlemen against the homesteaders, that kind of stuff. But, tempting as that metaphor was, it did not fit the facts. Land developers, as a rule, make unconvincing villains. They are in fact the spiritual descendants of the American pioneer, who saw the exploitation of the land not as a sin but as a moral obligation; they look upon "vacant land"—their lawyer's phrase—the way a missionary looks upon a heathen, as both an affront and a challenge.


There were other complications. The regional planning commission had approved the rezoning, thus lending that body's tarnished reputation to the request. Worse was the fact that 121 neighborhood residents had lent their names to a second petition, this one in favor of the supermarket construction. There was just too much gray in this story for good melodrama.


Besides, as I suspected, the story did not lie in the personalities of the actors anyway. That was where Kucera came in. He affirmed the notion, only half-formed, that the city—that is, the corporate City of Springfield—which is presumed to function in these cases as the arbiter among vested interests, is itself a vested interest.


Springfield's five commissioners are elected as stewards of the corporate city and pledged to look after its interests. The are, in effect, the city's board of directors. As does any board, they must secure the corporation's revenue sources, defend its territory against the encroachments of competitors, and expand its sphere of influence when such expansion is advantageous—in sum, protect Springfield's share of the market in the city business.


Their obligations in this regard are as much political as legal. Should they fail to stem the loss of jobs and business to the suburbs, for example, they must either squeeze a few more dollars out of a shrunken tax base by raising taxes or reduce municipal services—prospects for which neither politicians nor the public, for different reasons, have much enthusiasm. The corporate city is the child of the "People"—Kucera's aggregate—and it is the interests of the People that successful politicians must hold paramount.


As the developers' lawyer shrewdly pointed out, construction of the new supermarket would allow the City of Springfield to increase its territory (through annexation), its treasury (by addition of an estimated $49,000 annually in combined sales and real estate taxes), and its economic base (by creation of from 50 to 70 new jobs). These were sweet temptations indeed. After forcing the developers to accept a less intensive zoning (S-2 instead of B-1) and a few other concessions typical in such cases, the commissioners cast their votes four to one (Commissioner James Dunham voting no) in favor of the developers. "It is," as Commissioner Pat Ward noted, "in the interests of the city that we do this."


But was the new supermarket in the best interests of the neighborhood? The council is supposed to act as the advocate of the people (small "p"); as Commissioner Frank Madonia explained, "The people living here have a right to be concerned and they have nobody else except the city council to protect their rights." But when the interests of the city and the neighborhood of people and the People conflict, as some thought they did in this case, the council must act as the corporate city's board and vote on behalf of the city. It's a problem, as Kucera pointed out, of scale.


There's no hint of corruption in any of this. If the council members are caught in a conflict of interest, it's the conflict between their roles as protectors of the rights of individual citizens and their broader responsibilities as stewards of the corporate city. The commissioners are not, as is sometimes charged, captive to any developer. They are, however, captive to the need for development. ●




John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago


The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois


Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives


Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum


The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.


I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)




Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 


Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.


Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 


Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

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