The Advent of Unstate Illinois
Demographics threaten to undo Illinois
Politics is reckoned to be about votes, but politics is really about populations. Over the period of my working life, Illinois politics has been (and is still being) wrenched out of its familiar shape by two population trends—its slow growth compared to other parts of the nation and the shift in populations within the state. I addressed the impact of these shifts more than once; this one appeared on CE’s Politics & Policy page.
Ask its ordinary citizens and many of them might say an Illinois with fewer congressmen in it would be a better Illinois. The state's political pundits, however, have played as bad news the preliminary results of the 1990 U.S. Census, which will cost Illinois one or perhaps two seats in Washington. The house that most of the census stories missed is the Illinois statehouse, where the new census numbers promise to add up to a profound shift in legislative power.
Traditionally, Illinois politics has been defined in terms of its historic regional rivalries. But "downstate vs. Chicago" is a simple conceit that has obscured profound intrastate population shifts over the years as Illinoisans of each generation move to where the jobs are.
Rural Illinois has been bleeding people since the early 20th century and, indeed, the movement of people from its farms and small towns to its cities has been vastly larger than the migration from more foreign shores. Population in only 20 of the state's 102 counties increased since 1980; virtually all of the 82 counties that lost people were rural.
For decades, Illinoisans driven from the countryside by mechanization and consolidation were absorbed by the state's smaller downstate cities, as the children of people who once harvested Illinois' grain (to pick just one example) made their living building the machines that replaced them. East St. Louis, for example, nearly tripled its population in the 20 years after 1890. Springfield's working population so swelled just after the turn of the century that giddy boosters predicted it would someday be the No. 2 city in the state.
More recently, Downstate's blue-collar towns have suffered as massively as Chicago from deindustrialization. (Metropolitan Decatur has shrunk by nearly 11 percent since 1980, according to the preliminary census count, and Peoria by ten percent.) The only downstate cities that grew—and they did so only modestly—were those such as Springfield and Champaign-Urbana, whose economies rely heavily on government spending.
A more remarkable transformation has occurred around Chicago. To no one's surprise, the city appears to be at risk of shrinking to fewer than 3 million people for the first time since the 1920s, despite the influx of foreign-born immigrants. However, its suburbs—outlying Cook County, along with the collar counties of Kane, Will, Lake, DuPage and McHenry—continue their postwar boom. Naperville has nearly doubled in size since 1980, to 82,340.
It's the same kind of boom that transformed so many of downstate's small towns into cities a century ago. (In early September, the Illinois Department of Employment Security predicted the Chicago-area economy will add 400,000 new jobs by 2000; during those same 10 years, the other 96 Illinois counties combined are expected to generate only 166,000 new jobs.) If this trend continues, Aurora may well be Illinois' No. 2 city by 2010, comprising 148,000 people, with Naperville and Arlington Heights joining Rockford and Peoria in the state's top echelon.
The postwar suburban boom altered the state's demographics, but it is only slowly transforming its politics. The General Assembly, for instance, is stuck in 1970, thanks to some creative work by Democratic-controlled legislative mapmakers who gerrymandered legislative district boundaries to preserve the Chicago bloc's voting strength in Springfield.
So substantial is the population tilt toward the collar counties, however, that even a Democrat with a computer will not be able to forestall forever the enfranchisement of Reagan's Illinois in Springfield. For Chicago Democrats to retain a foothold in these new districts, experts calculate, mapmakers will have to extend the boundaries of the new districts far enough into adjacent suburbs to take in as many as 750,000 residents. Such districts are likely to harbor as many Republicans as Democrats, or at the very least enough swing voters to make them risky for regular Democrats.
It is not just the pace of suburbanization that threatens Chicago's traditional political dominance, however, but changes in its character. Through the 1960s, most suburban Chicagoans dwelt in traditional bedroom communities. Physically separate from the city, they wore nonetheless functionally and economically a part of a single urban entity and possessed a political and social consciousness formed (or deformed) by the city. That's still true in many of the city's older, inner ring of suburbs. For instance, Hispanic Cicero differs politically from the Bohemian Cicero only in its accent.
But Aurora or Round Lake are worlds away from Cicero. Their citizens who are not emigrés from out of state might as well be, having been raised not in the big city but in Illinois's small towns and suburbs or its downstate cities. When they move to "Chicago" they settle in ersatz small towns like Carol Stream and thereafter never venture into the city except perhaps to tour the Marshall Field's windows at Christmas.
These "urban villages" have evolved their own diverse economies and political agendas. When Richard M. Daley traveled to Schaumburg last winter to address a group of suburban mayors, it was less like George Bush paying a call on Congress than Sadat going to Jerusalem.
Future general assemblies will almost certainly be more receptive to the interests of the propertied middle class than to those of either the urban poor or the urban elite and what now is described as a collar may come to seem more like a noose.
Happily for the city, suburbanites in the new century may find themselves too preoccupied with their own woes to connive too energetically against Chicago. Precisely because of their growth, the suburbs are no longer the placid places of legend where (as one astute observer put it) it is forever 1962. The traditional enthusiasm for economic growth among our transplanted Main Street Rotarians owes much to the fact that growth heretofore meant factories in cities. There, the stink and noise and crowds were borne conveniently by immigrants or blue-collar ethnics—people who, confused by their misery, voted Democrat.
Today, economic growth is exploding in the Republicans' own safe haven. The congestion, the pollution, the rising taxes that for so long were the especial inheritance of the city dweller are today being borne by the middle class. And the middle class, as you would expect, doesn't like it. Writing recently in Illinois Issues magazine, former Chicago Tribune reporter John Camper took note of what might be called the politics of disappointment in Chicago's suburbs. The "tax revolt," he argued, is in fact merely a vehicle by which residents express inchoate resentments over the suburbs' failure to live up to expectations.
Such disappointments must seem modest, even laughable, to a public-housing resident or a displaced farmer. But just as the Chicago Democrat starts thinking like a Republican when he acquires a suburban lawn to mow, so the Republican in the suburbs starts thinking like a Democrat when his basement floods. As the suburbs come to resemble cities in density and form, they begin to resemble them politically as well.
Illinois legislative politics will never be so simple again. In the meantime, people in the opinion business will need to update the political lexicon. To such familiar terms as "Chicago" and "Downstate," we need to add a new word to describe the behemoth beginning to stir where the corn grows. The "boonies" smacks of derogation and "the burbs" is not specific enough. "DuPage" has already-been harnessed as a verb (as in the "DuPagification" of rural townships) but it makes a clumsy generic noun. "The Collar" perhaps? "The Ring?" Or—given its peculiar and characteristic placelessness—"Unstate Illinois?" ●
Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.
One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.
See Home Page/Learn/
Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.
The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.
The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.
A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.
Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."
Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards, posters, and videos.
The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.
“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.
I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered."
The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like.
The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly.
An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than
Southern Illinois University Press 2017
A work of solid history, entertainingly told.
author of Abraham
Lincoln: A Life
One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.
Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018
A lively and engaging study . . . an enthralling narrative.
The Annals of Iowa
A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians
as well as local historians generally.
Journal of Illinois HIstory
A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.
A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.
Journal of the Illinois
State Historical Society
to read about
to buy the book
SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.
The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more. Of particular note are its Prairie State Books, quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.
The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to
The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.
Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order
by book title.
Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.