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Finding a Niche

Sangamon State U. after twenty years

Illinois Times

February 20, 1992

Apart from the many local students who got a college degree cheaply and conveniently by attending classes up the road, Sangamon State University, the larval version of today’s University of Illinois Springfield, disappointed the hopes of everyone associated with it. This was not the fault of the people who ran it or taught there, but the result of a confused founding mandate and uncertain stewardship by its state government parent.


Twenty years ago some people in suits gazed across the cornfield south of town. "If we build it," the suits said, "they will come."


The students didn't come, at least not in anything like the numbers that the people who planned Sangamon State University expected. So now the state of Illinois is stuck with another university it doesn't need.


The U.S. must be the most over-schooled and under-educated nation on earth. About the only factories of any size we have opened in the post-OPEC age are degree factories, and none is more redundant in a shrinking economy than Sangamon State. Twenty years after its founding, it may finally have found its niche: Last fall the school signed up a record number of students—because, SSU officials gamely admitted, college costs have risen so that area students can't afford to go away to real universities.


As it has been from the start, SSU is a small example of a larger trend. In the 1970s and 1980s new campuses popped up in the Illinois countryside like shopping malls. A new community college system, a new medical school, branch campuses of senior institutions, expansions of existing campuses, all authorized in obedience to the universal marketing maxim that no consumer should have to travel farther than fifty miles to buy whatever he wants. Like the malls, this expanded higher education system offered merely more choices from among the same old goods—you might say the system was expanded without being added to—but the shoppers flocked to them nonetheless.


The expansion of college opportunities that began in the 1960s was part cause and part result of a general ratcheting up of career expectations. Colleges and universities became job-certification mills, abetted by state legislators who passed new licensing standards pushed upon them by trades and crafts eager to elevate their practitioners to "professional" status. (And their salaries; tougher standards have the happy effect of restricting supply and thus enhancing the jobs and income prospects of the certified.) As the old head nurse became the health systems management specialist, the price of service went up even if the quality didn't.


For example, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants by 2000 will require new members to have finished thirty hours of postgraduate college work. There is a big difference between learning about accounting and learning to be an accountant, and a good college will do rather a better job of the first. Readers may draw their own conclusions about how it happened that in a decade in which accounting standards were pushed higher and higher, the accounting industry failed to detect some of the biggest and most brazen financial scams the world has ever seen.


The ambitions of most of these new students were of course wackily out of touch with the realities of the economy. Richard Day, writing in a recent Illinois Issues, cites a 1988 nationwide survey in which more than half of 3,000 high school seniors polled wanted to be professionals, even though less than a fifth of the available jobs are in professional fields. The postwar promise that every Illinois kid who wanted to ought to go to college was expanded in the 1970s to, "Every Illinois kid ought to go to college." Today the rule is, "Every Illinois kid needs to go to college."


"Status creep" afflicts institutions as well as individuals. In a generation our teachers colleges have become universities and our universities "research institutions." The oddity is that as their pretensions swelled, they actually got dumber and dumber. State and national spending priorities are almost precisely upside down, investing vast sums to educate a few adults in arcane skills while leaving most children unable to read or add. Having failed to provide decent training opportunities for the noncollege population, we dumped that chore into the laps of the one educational institution that could (because of its middle class political constituency) draw on public funds for support. The result was high schools at Harvard prices.


This, not its putative public affairs thrust, kept SSU in business. The future envisioned for SSU by its more thoughtful advocates has been realized instead by the University of Illinois at Chicago, which now hosts a student body of some 25,000 from around the world and which has nationally recognized faculty in several fields. But of course UIC had a big city, an eager student body, and the sponsorship of the state's flagship university to help it grow.


SSU's public affairs mandate was—and remains—full of exciting possibilities. But to its real backers, if not its founding faculty, its mandate was merely a marketing ruse. Because the prospect of a proper public university in Springfield threatened the old alma mater, the loyal sons of the Illini had a hand in the former's birth that left it a senior statewide commuter school, the most deformed child in the family of Illinois higher ed.


"Illinois public affairs university" was a PR theme, a useful reply to make to legislators who asked what it was SSU would provide that couldn't be provided elsewhere. Fatally, the more the young school tried to make good on its mandate, the more likely it was that it would offend those powerful and jealous interests who control the state's public affairs, inside and outside the General Assembly.


With no powerful alumni backing it up and with its constituency of local influentials more interested in earning than learning, SSU became careful, and carefulness became a style. The founding commitment to teaching remained strong among the better of its faculty, but as an institution the place quickly forgot that what it teaches, not the fact that it teaches, is what makes a university notable. ●




John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago


The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois


Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives


Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum


The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.


I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)




Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 


Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.


Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 


Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

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