Amnesia

Unforgetting the Springfield race riots of 1908 

Illinois Times

August 14, 1980

A column recalling how the Springfield race riots of 1908 came to be forgotten, and about how I was involved in helping the city remember them, for a while.

Springfield residents will get the local jokes. Others can safely ignore them.

 

There was something interesting to read besides Police Beat in Springfield’s State Journal–Register on July 29. It was a feature supplement, called "The Front Page," and it offered reprints of a dozen "stories that chronicle the history of the city, the nation and the world" as they were portrayed on the front pages of it and its predecessor papers. The sinking of the Titanic was there, as was the Chicago fire and the first moon walk—the usual pop history, the good splashy stuff; the supplement reads like a preview of next season’s mini-series. The really important events, like the quiet day twenty years ago or so when for the first time more people made livings in service jobs than made them in manufacturing, make lousy headlines.

 

But there was another event whose absence I missed even more from the SJR’s collection. It was the Springfield race riots of 1908. On the fourteenth and fifteenth of August, seventy-two years ago, the capital city was witness to two days of white mob  violence against the city’s blacks, a convulsion of shooting, looting, and arson which laid waste to blocks of the black belt, saw dozens of hapless blacks beaten and two more murdered, and then (in a superfluity of violence) hanged. In a sense it was a familiar story, lt was hot. There was a trumped-up charge of assault by a white woman against a black man. There was a crowd of hotheads, cowardly police, and an inflammatory press. What was unique to the Springfield riots, what had to be unique to Springfield, was the awful irony of it all happening in the city of Abraham Lincoln, the Great Emancipator whose home, one black family believed, would provide "an ideal Negro locality."

 

The violence had national repercussions. Revulsion at it led not-so-indirectly to the foundation out East of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People—a distinction which subsequent chambers of commerce have been notably reluctant to claim. But in  many ways the riots’ effects on Springfield make a more fascinating story. I grew up in Springfield, on a white block in a white subdivision. But I went to school with black kids from across the tracks and counted them among my friends from an early age. Yet I never heard of the riots. There were no school bus trips in the sixth grade to Spring and Edwards where old man Donnegan had his throat cut for living with a white woman. No one taught us in school about the black families who were literally run out of their homes, or (and this was part of the story too) of those few white families who bravely offered shelter from the mobs to black employees and neighbors. There was not—and still is not—a plaque on the site where white Springfield cursed Lincoln’s name.

 

I did not hear about the riots until I was nearly a man. But it was not until I met Cullom Davis that I was urged to make a more thorough investigation to try to catch their ghost. Cullom had just come to Springfield as the academic vice president of Sangamon State University, which then consisted of a suite of rooms in the Myers Building. He is an historian by training and an administrator only by circumstance. He  knew of the riots—I forget how—and was intrigued by them. We collaborated on a bit of research which survives officially in the form of a pamphlet essay I called, much too melodramatically, Summer of Rage which was published in the fall of 1973 by the Sangamon County Historical Society. It was, as you might expect, the first and so far the only modern account of the riots in print.

 

Since then a few local teachers have used it as a subtext in history classes. I have spoken on television and radio about the riots, and Cullom, who fortunately is as energetic as he is accommodating, has delivered a slide lecture on the subject uncounted times; the only man who’s put in more public appearances in the last seven years is Doc Davidson. This willingness, even eagerness to learn about the riots is a new phenomenon. For six decades the subject simply was not written about, indeed not even talked about, at least not in public. It is easy to see why local whites would have denied the reality of the riots over the years, out of a sense of community if not individual shame, for the riots stripped the city of the cloak of Lincoln with which it had wrapped itself for the forty-three years previous.

 

There were other reasons for public silence by the press and officials. Among businesspeople, the desire to erase the memory of the riots had mercantile motives; no political and tourism center is likely to benefit from a reputation for civil violence. Springfield had been corrupt for decades with gambling, prostitution, and the political payoffs needed to sustain both. But riots were different. Riots were too noisy.

So the riots became, unofficially, a non-event. Survivors were often reluctant to talk, and as we quickly learned, not just to the earnest detectives who suddenly showed up on their porches with tape recorders and rude questions. This was true of blacks and whites alike.

 

Indeed, we found that many blacks had not talked to their own children about their experiences in 1908, or if they did it was in vague terms. Their recollections may have owed some of their vagueness to failing memory. But some of it was reticence which, against my expectations, had survived six decades and the civil rights revolution.

I was reminded of all this a few weeks ago while reading a brief essay  by a Mr. Paul Cowan. Cowan was writing about his research into a textile mill strike that began in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1912, an event Cowan calls "the Appomattox of the industrial labor movement." As he talked to the now-aged participants, Cowan was struck that most people in Lawrence devalued their role in the fight for better wages. One girl, whose testimony before Congress about wretched mill conditions had been played on front pages across the country, had told her daughter nothing about her role in the strike. "Why had she, like thousands of others in Lawrence, lost that past?" Cowan asked.

 

Cowan provided a clue. "From the industrialist’s point of view, it was important to transform participation in struggles like Lawrence’s from a badge of honor to a stain on one’s reputation." Something very much like that happened in Springfield. Soon after the event, proper Springfield was pointing to the corruption in the vice-ridden Levee district as an extenuating circumstance, if not an excuse, for the riots while failing to point out that the district was largely owned and patronized by whites, and that the Levee’s black precinct bosses owed their positions to a Republican  political machine under the thumb of an Irishman. They decried incidents of black violence against whites—while failing to condemn the press hysteria which distorted and exaggerated those events. They pointed to outside agitators, especially European immigrants—while failing to admit that, as one observer put it at the time, "a large part of the white population of Lincoln’s home" had initiated "a permanent warfare with the Negro race."

 

 Cowan found that in Lawrence, local industrialists had seized on a banner carried in a parade to accuse strikers of being atheists, so "the insurgents, not the working conditions, became the town’s main issue." The press was the agent of the counter-attack in Springfield. William Walling, a visiting journalist, noted that part of the Springfield press had failed to make "a complete denial of the whole hypocritical case against the Negro," and in fact argued it themselves. The Illinois State Journal argued, "It was not the fact of the whites’ hatred toward the negroes, but of the negroes’ own misconduct, general inferiority or unfitness for free institutions that were at fault." It was a lie, but one which voiceless blacks were powerless to contradict.

 

Maybe Springfield blacks of two generations ago, like Lawrence’s strikers, "were unwilling to burden their young with a history that had caused them such psychological and economic hardship." Perhaps, as was suggested to me, there was a reluctance to admit to their progeny, children of the ’60s, that they had not made a more active resistance. I don’t know. The reticence of the SJR to air its role is easier to understand. A newspaper in many ways is our community memory; the most voluminous archives of local history are kept not at the library but in the files of the local paper. The SJR’s predecessors helped induce that convenient amnesia which enabled much of Springfield to forget about the riots until a few years ago.

 

To have reprinted a front page from August of 1908 would have been to admit a shameful episode not just from the city’s past but from its own as well. It would also risk the asking of delicate questions about the SJR’s present relationship with the city’s black community. Which is precisely why the paper should have done it. A sudden shock often causes amnesia. Sometimes a sudden shock is also its best cure. ●

SITES

OF

INTEREST

John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago

 

The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois

 

Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives

 

Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum

 

The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.

Chicagology

I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

BOOKS

 OF INTEREST

Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 

Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with important interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state

(Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.

Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 

Contact James Krohe Jr. at CornLatitudes@outlook.com

All material Copyright © by James Krohe Jr. unless otherwise indicated