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Bringing Comfort

Comforting civilians about Iraq

Illinois Times

February 28, 1991

When I began as a journalist, the war in Vietnam was at its height. I was staunchly opposed—the only time in my life I showed staunch about anything—not only because I thought it immoral, but because I was appalled by its stupidity, its ignorance, its arrogance, its waste of treasure and lives.


Of course I assumed that the nation would learn from it. Of course we didn’t.


Ordinarily, the Springfield City Council doesn't meddle in foreign affairs. The world is full of countries whose names the aldermen cannot pronounce, and they usually have their hands full, diplomatically speaking, with Leland Grove. But on February 6 the council stretched its horizons and unanimously approved a resolution supporting U.S. troops in the Gulf and endorsing the leadership of George Bush. It is impossible to say how much comfort this action will bring to the troops but it seemed to bring considerable comfort to the aldermen.


It was exactly the kind of resolution you'd expect from people who get their news of the world from the State Journal-Register. This is not to say that the council was not correct to comment on the war. The U.S. military began destroying U.S. cities years before they started doing it in Iraq, by eating up the money that should have been spent rebuilding sewers and bridges and roads. (A man was selling T-shirts at Mac Arthur and Outer Park last weekend that read, "Illinois supports it's troops in the Gulf." Too bad we don't support our schoolteachers; what we spend on one Cruise missile can buy the services of twenty-five English teachers for a year.) Rich Daley, speaking as the mayor of Illinois's largest city, made that point just the other day. Referring to the Bush administration's steadfast refusal of aid for drug rehab or housing or mass transit, Daley suggested that Chicago declare war on Washington; if the U.S. can afford to rebuild Iraqi cities after a war, he explained, maybe it would rebuild Illinois cities too.


Our generals in the Gulf are busy fighting the last war, as generals tend to do, but it isn't only the generals who are reliving Vietnam these days. Americans have welcomed this war the way they might welcome a second marriage. Kicking Saddam's ass is a rare chance to profit from painful experience, to do right the second time around all the things they messed up the first time. The White House has learned not to let the real war onto TV like they did the one in Vietnam, confident that the American public only recognizes incipient fascism when it has a funny foreign accent. Antiwar activists have learned to cater to that public's simple pieties with ritual statements of support for the troops in the field, and to drape their hypocrisies in the American flag, just as the Right has always done.


The issue that seemed to most animate the aldermen was the memory of the indifference endured by Vietnam's veterans. Pat Ward spoke for the council's position when he argued the need "to eliminate any possibility of what happened after Vietnam." It's a common theme. A Chicago-area vet told the Trib the other day that he was glad to see all the ribbons and T-shirts and speech-making because it proved that we'd learned something from Vietnam.


It wasn't the troops' fault that we lost in Vietnam, of course. But if World War II GIs got a hero's welcome (including heroic benefits packages) it was because they, unlike their Vietnam-era counterparts, constituted a voting bloc too massive for politicians to ignore. And if politicians were eager to shake their hands in public, it was for the same reason that they pose with Superbowl champs—because America loves winners.


Actually, America loves only winners. This is not right, and we know it; a draftee sent to fight in a mistaken war is as much a victim as the people he is sent to kill. The residue of Vietnam thus turns out to be not wisdom but guilt. If there is anything most Americans regard as more heinous than killing and dying in a bad cause it is feeling bad about yourself, and they are determined that the troops in this war won't suffer it as a result of their exertions on the nation's behalf.


Perhaps the most dubious lesson from Vietnam is that the U.S. lost that war not because it had little support among the Vietnamese or because it was fought using the wrong means or because it proceeded from geopolitical premises that were wrongheaded, but because we talked about it too much at home. Fourth ward alderman Chuck Redpath said of the council's pro-Gulf resolution, "The policies of this war are not an issue here." Alas; soldiers do not die for flags, they die for policies, which is why not talking about policies does soldiers a disservice. This is especially true when the policies they will die for consist of impatience, ignorance, naiveté, macho bluster, and stumblefooted diplomacy in equal proportions. Commending Bush's leadership in the Gulf is like commending the driver who steers a crowded bus off a cliff while chasing down a fleeing shoplifter.

The aldermen did not spell out what it means to "support" our troops in the Gulf. Does it mean that they wish them success? Then they are hoping that hundreds, perhaps thousands of them are killed or wounded; a soldier's success comes from staying alive, but an army's success is still measured in blood, even in a high-tech war. From what I have heard around town, many of the aldermen's constituents harbor the hope that our soldiers can both win and come home unharmed. One is tempted to trace this childish fantasy to TV and movies, which is where most Americans learned about war, but its roots lie deeper; the yellow ribbon is not a political symbol to them but a magic charm.


No one on the council apparently thought to ask whether the way to not repeat what happened after Vietnam is to not have another Vietnam. That task, we have learned to our sorrow, is not one we can safely leave to our presidents and their generals. Among the lessons we might remember from Vietnam are the ways that governments lie to the public, how akin to racism is our willingness to bomb brown-skinned civilians, how dissent didn't prolong the war nearly as long as did the vanity of politicians, how a war with no clear objectives—or worse, with objectives that arc unrealizeable—cannot and perhaps should not be won, how the policies of war cannot be separated from the politics of war.


The troops in the Gulf, like troops of all wars, are happy to leave the politics to others. We are the others. It was interesting to contrast the vote in Springfield with one taken last month in Oak Park. The council in that Chicago suburb of 55,000 commended the bravery of U.S. troops, but it also condemned Mr. Bush's war as foolish. The town's government is producing window banners, to be given away free to residents, on which appear the U.S. flag, a dove, and the phrase, "Work for peace." The resolution remembered Vietnam's most important lesson, which is that if you care about your country's soldiers you don't send them to places where they must die and be maimed in wars that didn't need to be fought. Far better than remembering to honor troops for their bravery is making their bravery unnecessary in the first place. ●




John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago


The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois


Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives


Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum


The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.


I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)




Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 


Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.


Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 


Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

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