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Feeling Like a Foreigner

Taking the anthropological view in Chicago

Illinois Times

May 3, 1990

Much of the lingering political antagonism between Chicago and Downstate Illinois owes to mutual ignorance. Having lived in both places, I can tell you that the antagonism is as intense in one as it is in the other but the ignorance is mostly on the side of the Downstaters. This piece caught me in my public service mode, in which I tried to make visiting the big city seem less intimidating for Illinoisans outside the collar counties.

The original was a muddle; this version might not be any more persuasive but it is more coherent. 


The most startling news being published in magazines such as Der Spiegel and Punch these days is that there is more to the U.S. than New York and Disney World. The State of Illinois's Office of Tourism has been running full-pages ads in the big magazines in western Europe and Japan that tout our Gomorrah-by-the-lake as a destination city for the world's pleasure travelers. The ads claim that Chicago has Rio's beaches, Milan's clothes, Paris's restaurants, and London's museums. 


DCCA [Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs, which then ran the state tourism office] has targeted audiences in England, Germany, Japan, Italy, France, and Spain for its foreign tourism campaign. I suppose that  if the Europeans were impressionable enough to buy the mixed economy they'll buy Chicago as a Renaissance city. Touting Chicago's Europeanness is an error in any event. Foreigners are more impressed that Chicago has Chicago's buildings and blues musicians, and they're coming at a rate of a million people per year to see them.


DCAA is pitching nothing to the potential tourist from south of the border. I do not mean Mexico, but the Will County line, the southernmost edge of the six-county Chicago metropolitan area that separates it from the nether regions of the state. There are converts there, just waiting for The Word. Chicago is a foreign city to most Downstaters. Paris is a foreign city too, but Chicago strikes most Downstaters as more alien than exotic. Oh, people come up for an art show or ball game or to take the kids to the museums. And state workers from Springfield infest the state-rate hotels. But neither group stays long or strays far. Most find their way to Michigan Avenue and never leave it, clinging to it the way an uncertain swimmer clings to the edge of the pool.


MOst Downstaters suffer from a version of that anxiety that infects Chicago's image abroad, namely that (as one frustrated DCCA staffer put it to me) there is an Al Capone on every street corner. The big city's reputation for violence has increased, if anything; while the gangs these days are younger, they are less discriminating. The impression that Europeans get of Chicago from reruns of "The Untouchables," Downstaters get from the TV news, which runs only the most lurid and appalling stories. That most of these incidents occur not in the city but the suburbs, or that gang violence occurs miles from the tourist hotels, seldom comes through. A stranger's sense of any city is unfocused, so that what happens anywhere in Chicago seems to him to happen everywhere in Chicago.


Fear of crime is hardly the only cause of the Downstate visitor's unease in the big city. In its customs and physical arrangements, Chicago—downtown Chicago anyway—is as baffling a place as Ulan Bator. People park parallel on the street. They don't eat supper until eight. Many don't speak English. They smell like Ethiopians—not because so many of them are Ethiopians but because they ate at an Ethiopian restaurant the night before.


Like any foreign visitor to Chicago, the Downstater may encounter problems with language and currency. Interpreters are on duty at O'Hare to assist the non-English speaker, but a neglectful CTA does not provide translators to help you make sense of the signs on the public transit system. You will have to ask a local to learn, for example, that the "Des Plaines" to which the Congress el travels is not the town of Des Plaines, near O'Hare, but Des Plaines Avenue in the west suburb of Forest Park, ten miles to the south of O'Hare. And while your money from home is good in Chicago, the exchange rate is punishing to Downstaters. The hour of street parking that costs you thirty cents in Springfield will cost you four dollars in a Loop garage. And when you find out what they charge for a glass of the house wine in hotel bars on North Michigan, you may be tempted to ask if the house comes with it.


Americans wouldn't dream of staying in a hotel in the U.S. where the bathroom was down the hall, but they do it in England and think it's wonderfully quaint. The key to a happy visit to Chicago is to approach it in just that spirit. Do you disdain to ride the el because it's noisy, rickety, and slow? Then look at it through the eyes of the Milan-based design magazine Abitare, which described it in 1987 as a "remarkable anachronism" with "an adventurous personality that awakens in us intimate childhood memories related to notions of urban exploration and discovery."


There are in fact three Chicagos open to the tourist. The best known is the lakefront Chicago, the city of remarkable buildings, museums and parks, posh hotels and smart restaurants. In its values it is an extension of the North Shore suburbs, in ambiance—at least according to New Yorker staff writer Tony Hiss, whom I talked to about it recently—it is a throwback to the Manhattan of the 1950s and early 1960s, when New York was still a nice place to live as well as to make money.


The lakefront Chicago is for people who don't like Chicago. On her last visit, writer Jan Morris decried the new sidewalk cafes as affectations, mere props in an ersatz European street scene. She was comparing them, and the city, to Paris. Me, I compare them to the Beardstown Kiwanis' booth at the state fair. It's a matter of what you're used to. In Springfield's most pretentious hotel bar they serve Pabst in a chilled wine glass; if you want an ersatz experience, go to Chicago and have a real one.


The second "Chicago" is its suburbs. They may be described as the stuff you have to ride through to get to where you're going. (I backed construction of the proposed superconducting supercollider in DuPage County until I became convinced that it wouldn't explode.) In between the suburbs and the lakefront is the real Chicago, the city of neighborhoods where you find the best and cheapest restaurants and its least ersatz people. There is nothing quite so ugly as a neighborhood commercial street in Chicago but it is where you can find whatever truth there is to find about the city as a factory for turning foreigners into Americans.


The phrase "foreign city" takes on literal meaning in the neighborhoods. The Indian shops along Devon Avenue offer superb food and sari repair. Pilsen is as close to Mexico as you can get without having to drive through Texas. You can eat authentic Persian food in the old Swedish neighborhood of Andersonville (the Swedes have always been hospitable to the Third World). And if you can imagine every man, woman, and child in Taylorville turned Chinese you will have an idea of the growth of Chinatown, which today is home to about forty restaurants (mainly Cantonese). Just get off I-55 at Wentworth and ask about the duck at the nearest poultry shop. It's as close as you can get to feeling like a foreigner without a visa. ●




John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago


The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois


Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives


Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum


The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.


I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)




Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 


Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.


Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 


Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

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