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Missing Links

Illinois roads are not demanding.

Neither are its driving laws  

Illinois Times

March 7, 1980

Illinois being a big state, Illinoisans do a lot of driving. How well they do it was a minor preoccupation of mine and I wrote several pieces about it over the years. In this one I proposed making driver's licenses harder to get, especially for teens. For reasons that had nothing to do with this column, the State of Illinois would do just that in a few years, and the roads are safer for everyone as a result. As for demanding more of older drivers, I took that up here.


I haven’t any way to prove it, but I’d bet there are more virgins among Illinois adults than there are nondrivers. Driving a car, of course, is a more necessary skill in our culture than sex, and indeed is regarded by many people as more natural; I know because I didn’t begin driving until 1 was nearly thirty, and I remember that when they learned I didn’t drive, people looked at me as if I’d confessed to some perversion.


Alas, Americans aren’t much better at driving than they are at sex. This is especially true of the young, whose approach to both skills is a deadly compound of ignorance, hormones, and inexperience.


The results are predictably unfortunate. In the case of driving, for example, a survey by the Illinois Insurance Information Service revealed that 40 percent of Illinois’s fatal car accidents in 1978 involved drivers younger than twenty-four years, even though that group accounted for only 22 percent of the state’s licensed drivers. Those same drivers were involved in 35.5 percent of all the accidents in which someone was hurt, and in 31.4 percent of accidents in general—disturbing numbers, for they show not only that young drivers have proportionately more accidents than the rest of us but that those accidents are more likely to result in injury or death.


More interesting still, the IIIS figures show that the odds of being in an accident go up as drivers’ ages go down. While 19.5 percent of the twenty- to twenty-four-year-olds were involved in accidents in 1978, 22 percent of the eighteen- to nineteen-year-olds, 23 percent of the seventeen-year-olds and no fewer than 29 percent of the sixteen-year-olds were. It is a well-known, if not yet well-appreciated, fact that car accidents are one of the leading causes of death among the young. So is suicide, though after reviewing the statistics I confess I have trouble seeing the difference between them.


It was with more curiosity than usual, then, that I greeted the publication in last Sunday’s State Journal-Register of three essays by Springfield area high schoolers. Their topic was, “High School Driver Education: Is It Doing the Job?” written as part of a $500 scholarship contest sponsored by the Illinois Editors’ Traffic Safety Seminar. I have no wish to comment on these efforts as essays; I was much more interested in what they said than in how they said it.


Driver ed is one of those adolescent preoccupations—first kisses and proms are among the others—whose importance is exaggerated by its newness. The State of Illinois requires sixteen-year-olds to complete thirty hours of classroom instruction and six behind-the-wheel practice sessions before they can get licenses—this of course in addition to the written and behind-the-wheel examinations required of all would-be drivers. (The classroom sessions include some ponderous adult finger wagging in the form of repellent films showing the gruesome aftermath of car wrecks. The films make some kids ill, and though I doubt whether they make any kids better drivers, they have been known to keep them away from movies for awhile.) Indeed, completing classroom driver ed is like passing a test on the U.S. Constitution, a requirement for high school graduation, even for those who, like me, had no intention of applying for a license. (Virtually the only things the General Assembly insists that Illinois high schoolers know is how many amendments there are in the Bill of Rights and what “right on red” means. Readers may judge for themselves what this tells us about the General Assembly, the automobile, and the rule of law in the late twentieth century.) Ostensibly this instruction is intended to teach young people how to be good drivers. In fact it is intended only to teach them how to get a driver’s license. The two—and this is important to any understanding of teenage accident statistics—are not the same thing.


Of the classroom instruction, one of our essayists complains, “such quizzes . . . are actually a better test of students’ cheating abilities,” since students are allowed to ask each other for help. (Me, I worry about kids having to ask someone for help while they're driving.) Worse, she goes on, the permit test questions “are often overly simple or they are unfair, trivial questions, rarely pertaining to daily driving.” True on both counts; when I took mine I finished it correctly in fewer than thirty seconds. It was then that I began to suspect that any, test that everyone can pass is no test at all.


Neither the behind-the-wheel instruction nor the license exam that follows it are any more taxing; indeed the most onerous part of becoming a driver is paying the $8.00 license fee. Unlike most people I was not a nervous sixteen year old when I took my driver’s exam but a fully formed adult with some experience of the world. Where a teenager emerges from the test feeling relieved, I emerged from it feeling angry. I was disappointed to learn that the written exam was no more demanding than the permit test had been. I was even more disappointed to discover that the behind-the-wheel exam consisted of puttering about the neighborhood for perhaps ten minutes along a route that covered residential streets almost exclusively, interrupted only by a few stop signs and one or two traffic lights plus the requisite turn-around.


I was not asked to perform any of the standard maneuvers I’d learned were necessary to the operation of a car in city traffic, such as laying on one’s horn at right-on-red intersections or double-parking on Cook Street while waiting for Illinois Bell employees. Nor, on a more serious level, was I asked to enter, navigate, and exit an interstate highway, pass a car or a truck on a narrow two-lane highway, park parallel, handle the car in rush-hour traffic, or drive at night or in rain or snow or any other inclement weather. I was asked to park my car on a hill—this in one of the flatter cities, in one of the flatter states in the union. Don’t think this little exercise doesn’t help, though; I’ll wager that not one of the 1,019,934 Illinois drivers involved in accidents the year I took my test earned that unhappy distinction because of runaway parked cars careening down hillsides.


But, as another of our safety- minded essayists pointed out, “Attitude is the missing link” in the state’s driver ed program. It is seldom acknowledged that by the time most high school sophomores walk into the first classroom driver ed session they’ve already had hundreds of hours of driver ed from their parents, friends, and relatives with whom they’ve ridden over the years. Drivers ed becomes, like sex education, an exercise in prudence and intelligence contradicted at every comma by the culture outside the classroom. Worse, the very irrelevance of formal driver ed courses contributes to the sham. Kids learn that it’s okay to cheat—harmless enough in class, but potentially fatal when they start doing it at sixty-five miles per hour. They learn too, that if adults insist on silly driving courses, they must not take good driving seriously.


Cures? One of our essayists suggests “adequate equipment and teaching techniques must be uniformly provided”—sentiments which should earn her a nice career at the Illinois Office of Education but which miss the point, I think. No, this problem requires more drastic steps. Stiffening the driver’s exam in both its written and behind-the-wheel phases to include a wider range of driving situations would help. So would less forgiving enforcement of traffic laws.


The single biggest step, however, is to simply raise the minimum driving age to eighteen, nineteen, even twenty-one. A year or so ago I read of a study that suggested that it is the immaturity of the young driver, not his or her training, that is the cause of teens’ appalling driving record. Because of this, the compulsory driver ed programs have made U.S. streets less safe, not more, because they have made it possible for large numbers of sixteen-year-olds to take to the streets legally.


This is a useful insight, and one which might profitably be applied to a wide range of political issues involving the young. I begin to wonder, for example, if the General Assembly didn’t make a mistake in raising the drinking age in Illinois. One of the big reasons for the change was the rise in alcohol-related pileups involving young people. But is that record because they can’t handle liquor, or because they can’t handle cars? I suspect the latter. Let them drink at nineteen, I say. Just don’t let them drive. □




John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago


The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois


Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives


Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum


The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.


I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)




Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

Click  here 

to buy the book 


Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.


Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 


Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

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