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Because We're Curious

Illinois history did not begin with the whites

Illinois Times

October 5, 1983

A column in which I complain about the public's ignorance of Illinois’s Indian past while exposing my own. I note that the Illiniwek were culturally akin to Algonquin people to the east, yet the famous Chief Illiniwek mascot who regales fans at University of Illinois ball games wears a costume of Plains Indians. In fact, the later Illiniwek were a hybrid culture that had borrowed much from the Siouian peoples as climate change caused Illinois to resemble the Plains ecologically.


It is a telling beginning. Even though what we now call Illinois has been occupied continuously for perhaps 12,000 years, even though there existed near modern East St. Louis a metropolis of as many as 40,000 people which outshone anything white settlers were to build for another 700 years, and even though the state itself bears an Indian name, the series of dioramas at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum entitled "The Story of Illinois" begins with a scene depicting the arrival of the first white Europeans in 1673.


The "Story of Illinois" is a relic of an earlier era when racial arrogance was more accepted than today, if no more widespread. The impression that Illinois history began with the arrival of whites is something which the museum will begin putting right next year when it unveils an ambitious quartet of life-size dioramas depicting various eras in the history of red Illinois.


Until such time as the touring public is thus re-educated, it remains fair to say that the average modern Illinoisan’s knowledge of the Indian heritage of the state is a hopeless muddle. A trivial example surfaced last year. The mascot of the University of Illinois, Chief Illiniwek, is named after the tribe who met French explorers Marquette and Joliet in 1673. The Illiniwek were culturally akin to the Algonquin to the east. Yet the dance with which Chief Illiniwek entertains football fans is patterned after that of the Sioux tribe; his costume likewise is of Sioux design and manufacture. Worse, even the name is a misnomer; the Illiniwek are not believed to have even had chiefs in the sense in which we have come to understand the term.


The historic tribes which inhabited the state included the Illiniwek, the Fox, the Sauk, the Kickapoo, and others.  Public knowledge about such historical Indian groups is sketchy, but the average lllinoisan knows less about Indian prehistory hereabouts than he does about our system of local property taxation. As noted, the Indian occupation extends backward some 12,000 years. Experts have divided that span into four major cultural phases—the Archaic (ending about 1,000 BC), the Woodland (1,000 BC to about AD 800), the Mississippian (AD 800 to around AD 1550), and the historical. Each of these in turn had an Early or Late and sometimes a Middle period, each of which boasted distinctive tools, settlement patterns, and social organization.


The busy reader may ask, "So what?" Archaeologists and anthropologists like to say (just in case there is a legislative budget committee member listening) that we have much to learn from the Indian experience in Illinois. This isn’t so far-fetched. The "mound city" at Cahokia, for instance, grew from the mud of the American Bottom as a result of what one anthropologist has described as "a complex feedback interaction involving population growth and an advance in agricultural productivity" based on new plant varieties and improved cultivation technology) and convenient transportation access, which is exactly how Chicago got so big.


The Mississippian people—that is, the people of the culture anthropologists have dubbed Mississippian, after the river valley—built Cahokia beginning about 1,200 years ago. They had a trade network which extended as far as the Great Lakes, the Carolinas, and Oklahoma, and built a city—complete with suburbs of a sort—which was the largest known in North America. Like Chicagoans, they had to devise political structures to cope with increased population densities and competition for resources. Also like Chicagoans, they didn’t get it exactly right.


In most respects the Mississippians were the most culturally advanced of lllinois’s prehistoric inhabitants. The invention of the steel plow by John Deere was actually the second major innovation in corn farming; the first was the replacement of the digging stick by the hoe (an improvement which is also sometimes attributed to the Mississippians’ predecessors, the Middle Woodland or Hopewell peoples). The hoe made possible productivity increases which in turn made possible the larger, settled populations of towns. (The dependence on crops also was a spur to religion, according to some experts. The Indians had a shaman to insure their bounty; our farmers have John Block. Same song, different key.)


The Mississippian culture declined inexplicably just before the white influx. Much of the speculation as to its demise in Illinois centers around environmental factors, an issue not without relevance now. Depletion of soil nutrients through over-cropping, killing off of big game, exhaustion of timber needed for fuel and building, have all been offered in explanation—and all are a warning to us.


The answer to this and other questions are waiting to be unearthed. Literally. Illinois is littered with remains of Indian villages, burials, and camp sites from every period. A survey of the routes of a proposed rail corridor near Springfield in the mid-l970s cataloged more than 100 such sites. A similar survey done in advance of crews building the Central Illinois Expressway found eighty-five. Dr. Stuart Struever, the man who’s led the digging at Kampsville, perhaps the most important continuously occupied site in the eastern U.S., once estimated that there were at least 25,000 sites worth excavating in southern Illinois.


And re-excavating. In 1980, for example, scientists revisited the Modoc Rock Shelter, a 9,000-year-old camp site in Randolph County which had been first excavated in the mid-l950s and since preserved as a national historic site. Using the latest methods (fine mesh screening and flotation techniques which can recover very small plant and animal remains) they were able to gain new insights into ancient diets and thus ecological conditions. They also obtained new plant remains buried at the site, which, when tested using more sophisticated radiocarbon dating techniques than were available thirty years ago, gave more accurate dates for the shelter’s various human occupations. The result is a significantly amended chronology of the site, of the inhabitants’ use of stone tools, and of the relationships between changing climate and their changing economy and culture.


It will not surprise readers to hear that not nearly enough money is being spent to explore these sites. True, more is being spent than in the recent past; federal law, for example, requires the excavation of significant archaeological sites imperiled by road construction. (One such "rescue dig" on the route of Interstate 270 near Cahokia in 1977 discovered a magnificent 700-year-old statue of a woman.) But farming and urban development are destroying hundreds of potentially rich archaeological sites each year.


At one level, popular interest in Illinois prehistory has never been higher. Dickson Mounds near Lewistown (an adjunct to the Illinois State Museum) offers simulated digs and similar fare to big audiences. Kampsville has made an industry of catering to visiting "arkies" and touring students. Indeed, one could make a plausible case for the rescue of Indian remains on the grounds that by supplying the tourist industry with novelties it generates a positive cash flow. Yet archaeology and allied sciences are never likely to command much public attention in Springfield, and even less in the private sector. A society can be judged not according to how it does the things that need to be done but how it does the things which ought to be done. How much nicer it would be to hear a governor, asked why the state was spending money to dig up its past, reply simply, "Because we’re curious." ●

Revised 03/02/2021




John Hallwas

Essential for anyone interested in Illinois history and literature. Hallwas deservedly won the 2018 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Illinois State Historical Society.

Lee Sandlin Author

One of Illinois’s best, and least-known, writers of his generation. Take note in particular of The Distancers and Road to Nowhere.

Chicago Architecture Center

See Home Page/Learn/

Resources for a marvelous building database, architecture dictionary, even a city planning graphic novel. Handsome, useful—every Illinois culture website should be so good.

The Encyclopedia of Chicago


The online version of The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Crammed with thousands of topic entries, biographical sketches, maps and images, it is a reference work unmatched in Illinois.

Illinois Great Places

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 2018 selected 200 Great Places in Illinois that illustrate our  shared architectural culture across the entire period of human settlement in Illinois.

McLean County Museum

of History

A nationally accredited, award-winning project of the McLean County Historical Society whose holdings include more than 20,000 objects, more than 15,000 books on local history and genealogy, and boxes and boxes of historical papers and images.

Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, and Other Highlights of Lincoln, Illinois


Every Illinois town ought to have a chronicler like D. Leigh Henson, Ph.D. Not only Lincoln and the Mother road—the author’s curiosity ranges from cattle baron John Dean Gillett to novelist William Maxwell. An Illinois State Historical Society "Best Web Site of the Year."

Illinois Digital Archives


Created in 2000, the IDA is a repository for the digital collections of the Illinois State Library and other Illinois libraries and cultural institutions. The holdings include photographs, slides, and glass negatives, oral histories, newspapers, maps, and documents from manuscripts and letters to postcards,  posters, and videos.

The Illinois State Museum


The people's museum is a treasure house of science and the arts. A research institution of national reputation, the museum maintains four facilities across the state. Their collections in anthropology, fine and decorative arts, botany, zoology, geology, and  history are described here. A few museum publications can be obtained here.

Chronicling Illinois

“Chronicling Illinois” showcases some of the collections—mostly some 6,000 photographs—from the Illinois history holdings of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library.


I will leave it to the authors of this interesting site to describe it. "Chicagology is a study of Chicago history with a focus on the period prior to the Second World War. The purpose of the site is to document common and not so common stories about the City of Chicago as they are discovered." 

Illinois Labor History Society

The Illinois Labor History Society seeks to encourage the preservation and study of labor history materials of the Illinois region, and to arouse public interest in the profound significance of the past to the present. Offers books reviews, podcasts, research guides, and the like. 

Illinois Migration History 1850-2017

The University of Washington’s America’s Great Migrations Project has compiled migration histories  (mostly from the published and unpublished work by UW Professor of History James Gregory) for several states, including Illinois. The site also includes maps and charts and essays about the Great Migration of African Americans to the north, in which Illinois figured importantly. 

History on the Fox

An interesting resource about the history of one of Illinois’s more interesting places, the Fox Valley of Kendall County. History on the Fox is the work of Roger Matile, an amateur historian of the best sort. Matile’s site is a couple of cuts above the typical buff’s blog. (An entry on the French attempt to cash in on the trade in bison pelts runs more than

2,000 words.)




Southern Illinois University Press 2017

A work of solid history, entertainingly told.

Michael Burlingame,

author of Abraham 

Lincoln: A Life 

One of the ten best books on Illinois history I have read in a decade.

Superior Achievement Award citation, ISHS Awards, 2018

A lively and engaging study . . .  an enthralling narrative.

James Edstrom

The Annals of Iowa

A book that merits the attention of all Illinois historians

as well as local historians generally.

John Hoffman

Journal of Illinois HIstory

A model for the kind of detailed and honest history other states and regions could use.

Harold Henderson 

Midwestern Microhistory

A fine example of a resurgence of Midwest historical scholarship.

Greg Hall

Journal of the Illinois

State Historical Society

Click  here 

to read about

the book 

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to buy the book 


Southern Illinois University Press

SIU Press is one of the four major university publishing houses in Illinois. Its catalog offers much of local interest, including biographies of Illinois political figures, the history (human and natural) and folklore of southern Illinois, the Civil War and Lincoln, and quality reprints in the Shawnee Classics series.

University of

Illinois Press

The U of I Press was founded in 1918. A search of the online catalog  (Books/Browse by subject/Illinois) will reveal more than 150 Illinois titles, books on history mostly but also butteflies, nature , painting, poetry and fiction, and more.  Of particular note are its Prairie State Books,  quality new paperback editions of worthy titles about all parts of Illinois, augmented with scholarly introductions.

University of

Chicago Press

The U of C publishing operation is the oldest (1891) and largest university press in Illinois. Its reach is international, but it has not neglected its own neighborhood. Any good Illinois library will include dozens of titles about Chicago and Illinois from Fort Dearborn to

Vivian Maier.

Northern Illinois University Press

The newest (1965) and the smallest of the university presses with an interest in Illinois, Northern Illinois University Press gave us important titles such as the standard one-volume history of the state (Biles' Illinois:
A History of the Land and Its People) and contributions to the history of Chicago, Illinois transportation, and the Civil War. Now an imprint of Cornell University Press.


Reviews and significant mentions by James Krohe Jr. of more than 50 Illinois books, arranged in alphabetical order

by book title. 


Illinois Center for the Book

Run by the Illinois State Library, The Center promotes reading, writing and author programs meant to honor the state's rich literary heritage. An affiliate of the Library of Congress’s Center for the Book, the site offers award competitions, a directory of Illinois authors, literary landmarks, and reading programs.

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